With development of social economy in evolution of marketing theories, various marketing theories have emerged. There are two main strands in this evolution, namely management marketing and relationship marketing. Modern marketing theory develops along these two axes.
In 1912, Harvard University professor Hejie Teki published first textbook called "Marketing", which became an important symbol of separation of marketing from economics and formation of an independent discipline, which ensured market development of marketing theory, which played a fundamental role. Then came transactional marketing theory, managerial marketing theory, social marketing theory, green marketing theory, and relationship marketing theory.
Various theories of marketing presented during evolution of marketing theory correspond to development of economics, management and other disciplines. At same time, since computer science and computer science are widely used in field of social production and circulation, they are also applied in marketing theory and marketing methods, which makes marketing theory gradually enriched and improved. From direction of development of "consumer-oriented" social needs to attention to combination of marketing activities and marketing environment. Marketing environment research has changed from focusing only on economic factors to encompassing many non-economic factors. Marketing techniques have evolved from focusing on a specific aspect to a series of tracks that use different techniques in a comprehensive way.
Marketing theory absorbs useful elements of science from other disciplines such as economics, social science, psychology, management and other theories such as information theory, systems theory, cybernetics, synergy, etc. Systematization, complexity and practicality go hand in hand hand. .
1. "P", "C" and "R" in marketing theory
Since McCarthy's 4P marketing strategy was proposed in late 1950s, it has had a huge impact on marketing theory and practice and is considered a classic of marketing theory by marketing managers. How to implement marketing mix under guidance of 4P theory is actually main method of corporate marketing work.
Even today, almost every marketing plan is based on theoretical basis of 4Ps, almost every marketing textbook and all marketing courses use 4Ps as main content of training, and almost every marketing manager, when planning marketing activities, we consciously or unconsciously consider questions from 4P theory.
However, Philip Kotler, a professor at Northwestern University in US, called traditional marketing mix theory - Product, Price, Race, Promotion - a 4P marketing tactic; at 1984 He proposed two basic marketing techniques for public relations or public opinion (Public Relations or Public Opinion), politics or power (Political or Power); in 1986 he proposed probing (Probing), segmentation (Partitioning), prioritization (Prioritizing). Positioning (Positioning) marketing strategy Theory 4Ps.
(1) The Two Essential Marketing Skills
It's really not enough just to meet needs of consumers. For example, in presence of trade barriers, entering a foreign market requires megamarketing, that is, use of economic, psychological, political, and public relations skills to gain partners from various political parties, governments, and interest groups in country. .
Some products, such as automobiles, are not simply designed by companies with consumer needs in mind. Their "designers" may also include interest groups such as government and environment. So first thing to decide in modern marketing is not what consumers need and what you can give them, but what you are allowed to provide. For example, PepsiCo entered Indian market only after PepsiCo provided a package of lucrative privileges.
(2) strategic 4P
The first problem that needs to be addressed in modern marketing is strategic 4Ps, not tactical 4Ps. The tactical 4Ps embody mainly "entrepreneurial centralism" and real market orientation is not sufficiently reflected.
In 4P strategy, research is market research. Although this is an old topic, Professor Kotler mentioned it in middle of strategy.
Marketing research is starting point and foundation of marketing. They start before a company makes any products.
Segmentation in strategic 4PS is actually Market Segmentation, and its meaning is process of dividing entire market into several groups of consumers using a systematic method according to differences in consumer needs. Each customer group represents a market segment, also known as a "sub-market" or "sub-market".
The priority in strategic 4Ps is choice of target market (Market Targeting), that is, based on market segmentation, determine market that company will enter, or that part of consumers that company must satisfy to maximum extent. It is based on market segmentation. Accordingly, target market strategy includes a “no differentiation strategy” targeting entire market, a “differentiation strategy” targeting multiple market segments, and a “differentiation strategy” targeting only market. market segments represent "concentrated strategies" for target market.
PositionedThe key to strategic 4Ps is to determine appropriate position of product in minds of potential customers, including repositioning existing products and pre-positioning potential products. Positioning is valuable because it is different and original.
(3) 4P to 4C
The 4C marketing theory proposed by Lallterbom is a useful addition to 4P and is gradually coming to forefront of application of marketing theory. Here are 4Cs:
Desires and needs of consumer. This is for "products" in 4Ps. Requires you to put aside original merits of product for a while, forget about it, and study needs and desires of consumers. Not selling what you can do, but selling customers. Decide what you want to buy. Here product is replaced by consumer.
Cost. This is at a "price" of 4r. It takes a moment to forget about inherent pricing strategy, and start with cost (Cost) that consumers have to pay or are willing to pay.
Convenience. This is for channels. It is required to forget about inherent channels and start with convenience (Convenience) for consumers to purchase goods. No matter how good your channel design is, it is useless if consumers feel uncomfortable.
Communication. This is for "promotion" in 4p. Many of current promotions are often wishful thinking, lack of two-way communication, and consumer misunderstanding. Therefore, you need to forget about promotions and focus on good communication with consumers.
(4) 3R and 4R Marketing
In early 1990s, two professors at Harvard University in United States studied relationship between market share and business profits based on data from service companies and found that market share had little effect on profits, while customer loyalty high level of service more profitable.
They believe service businesses should adopt a 3R marketing strategy:
Strive to retain customers (retention), sell products and services that customers are interested in (related sales), and encourage customers to share their satisfactory consumption experience with family and friends (recommendations).
In 1994, professors such as Harvard's Jamie L. Hesketh advanced theory of profit chain management in service industry based on previous research.
The internal logic of service profit chain is as follows: Increasing profitability of an enterprise depends on increasing customer loyalty, customer loyalty is determined by customer satisfaction, customer satisfaction is determined by value they receive, high value comes from enterprise High employee performance depends on increasing employee loyalty, and employee loyalty depends on employee satisfaction with enterprise., employee satisfaction depends on quality of internalenterprise service.
In addition to 3R operator, there are also 4R operators.
This is proposed by marketer Schulz on basis of managerial and relationship marketing, and is another important development of marketing theory. 4P:
Relevance means that businesses and customers share a common destiny and their interests are linked to each other. Correlation aims at non-correlation of traditional marketing that shares or even opposes interests of both. Relevance is premise and foundation of relationship marketing.
Relation - Raise relationship questions based on relevancy confirmation. From a time perspective, relationship marketing emphasizes long term, which means that attention should be paid not only to strengthening relationships, but also to developing them. From point of view of spatial scope, omnidirectional and multi-level nature of relations (enterprises-consumers, enterprises and workers, enterprises and suppliers, enterprises and intermediaries, enterprises and society, enterprises and nature, enterprises and communications, enterprises and government) should be emphasized.
Reaction means that in order to strengthen and develop a long-term and comprehensive relationship, companies must pay close attention to each other's reactions (emotions, speeches, actions, demands). In a certain sense, it is process of satisfying reasonable demands of other side and process of constantly strengthening and developing relationship between two parties. As far as promotion in traditional marketing is concerned, real promotion lies in reasonable and reasonable satisfaction of requirements of other party on merits.
Return refers to consolidation and development of any trading behavior. For both sides of transaction, there are problems with return. At same time, a defined return is not only a starting point, but also an end point for enterprises to properly handle associations, relationships, and responses. Because if neither party can be properly rewarded, relationship cannot be strengthened, let alone developed.
2. Green Marketing
Also known as environmental marketing, environmental marketing or harmonious marketing, it means that enterprises strive for unity of consumer interests, corporate interests, social interests and environmental interests in marketing activities, fully satisfying consumer needs and realizing corporate profit goals, we must also pay attention to natural ecological balance.
The creation, design and production of products, and planning and implementation of pricing and sales promotion should be based on premise of environmental protection, and strive to reduce or prevent pollution, protect and conserve natural resources, and maintain long-term future interests of human society, to achieve sustainable economic and market development.
Compared to traditional marketing methods, green marketing is based on demand for green goods, consumption of green products, and protection of environment. These two concepts are closely related and differ from each other.
The traditional method of marketing is aimed at stimulating consumption and ensuring its endless expansion. Businesses strive to get maximum benefit, and consumers get more goods for same price, which ultimately leads to a serious waste of resources. Green marketing is different in that it emphasizes that more important is green, environmentally friendly, environmentally friendly and efficient process of consuming product, and enterprise pursues integration of consumer demand and effective demand and maximizing marginal benefit from use of resources.
Traditional marketing emphasizes use of various means to achieve marketing goals, but ignores negative impact of marketing tools; while green marketing emphasizes that marketing media must be aligned with natural and social environment in order to promote beneficial development of environment.
Green marketing is an important part of circular economy, which is reflected in specific marketing activities and has its main features:
Raise awareness of sustainable consumption, which is basis of green marketing;
Implement a green promotion strategy, which is key to green marketing.
Use green marketing logo, which is an important feature of green marketing;
Growing a green crop is supporting green marketing.
3. Cultural Marketing
Cultural marketing refers to a marketing method in which business operators use cultural resources to add value to products and services through development and creation of cultural concepts, and to achieve market exchange while meeting and creating consumers' cultural needs of truth. , goodness and beauty.
The elements of cultural marketing include:
(1) Cultural resources refers to various resources used or available in cultural marketing activities.
By its nature, it can be divided into material cultural resources and spiritual cultural resources. According to its form, it can be divided into traditional cultural resources, modern cultural resources and foreign cultural resources, according to its content - into natural cultural resources, humanistic socio-cultural resources.
(2) Cultural concept is a kind of ideological value created by enterprise, combined with spirit of times, situation of consumption and communication with consumers in product design, market positioning, packaging advertising, public relations image, promotion services and other marketing activities.
Value communication, embodied in these cultural concepts, runs through all aspects of all marketing activities and becomes guiding ideology of marketing, which is an essential feature that distinguishes cultural marketing from other types of marketing activities. Culture manifests itself in creation of cultural ideas.
Cultural marketing should be distinguished from marketing culture. Both are related to culture, but cultural marketing focuses on application of cultural resources and cultural ideas in marketing and emphasizes functional significance of culture. Marketing culture is crystallization and product of enduring concepts and systems accumulated and shaped over a long period of time in marketing activities, and is often long-term result of cultural marketing.
Compared to cultural function of cultural marketing, marketing culture is more long-term and stable. Once formed, it has a guiding value for cultural marketing and all marketing activities.
There are many practical areas of cultural marketing in food service industry:
The reason McDonald's has successfully landed in China is not only because it relies on foods like hamburgers and french fries, but also because Western industrial values of equality, efficiency and standardization are his magical weapon to win;
Henan red sorghum stew noodles wanted to provoke a "confrontation" between eastern and western food cultures, and this also made a splash;
Nostalgic restaurants such as hotels for educated youth and Laosanji restaurants have sprung up in various places, deliberately creating a cultural atmosphere of past, which not only touched people involved at time, but also made those young people who did not experience this period stories, also aroused a strong sense of curiosity.
4. Internet Marketing
Internet marketing is use of Internet to carry out marketing activities.
The discovery and continuous improvement of Internet has opened up new opportunities for corporate marketing, as well as posed new challenges for traditional marketing, indicating that a marketing revolution is about to happen - advent of era of Internet marketing.
Internet marketing is not only a technological revolution, but also a deeper conceptual revolution. It is a combination of targeted marketing, direct marketing, decentralized marketing, customer-facing marketing, two-way interactive marketing, remote or global marketing, virtual marketing, paperless transactions andmarketing with customers.
Internet companies can use Internet to search for information about domestic and foreign products at a very low cost;
Conduct product testing and customer satisfaction surveys with targeted online customers;
Allow customers to create their own products according to individual needs; publish relevant information on Internet for promotional and promotional activities;
Can use network channels to carry out direct online transactions (mainly electronic products such as computer software, e-books, electronic databases, etc., and some may use electronic money) or cooperate with traditional delivery " from door to door". and calculation to complete transaction process ;
It can also provide a variety of after-sales services through network, create customer files, and carry out one-on-one two-way interactive communication with customers.
Due to reduction of channels, reduction of business and management staff, number of managers, agents, branches and stores caused by adoption of virtual organizations inside and outside enterprise (such as virtual storefront layout, virtual goods, virtual dealers and virtual representatives business) The reduction or elimination of warehouse costs and risks caused by "make to order and on time delivery", as well as high transaction efficiency and low transaction costs due to simplification of transaction process, are associated with a significant reduction in marketing costs and increase efficiency, quality and profit of marketing .
5. Social Marketing
The term "social marketing" first appeared in early 1970s. The original meaning at time was to use principles and skills of marketing to promote a particular social action, concept, and behavior.
The term has since evolved into science of social change management, which specifically refers to design, implementation, and control of change. The purpose of adopting social concepts or practices.
Social marketing uses concepts of market segmentation, consumer research, product concept development and testing, targeted communication, amenities, incentives, and exchange theory to maximize response of targeted recipients.
The main principle of social marketing is desire to understand consumers and develop products that meet their desires and needs. Social marketers want to know all marketing drivers of consumer behavior they want to change—preferences, values, beliefs, attitudes, and prevailing behaviors. They also study broad social and cultural factors that influence consumer behavior.
Social marketing should target one or more target groupsgroup of recipients. Since each beneficiary group has its own beliefs, attitudes and values, social marketing programs must be individualized and tailored to specific needs of target segment.
Relevant information about target group of recipients should be collected on following three aspects:
First, socio-demographic characteristics, including external characteristics of social class, income, education, age and family size, etc.;
Second, psychological characteristics, including intrinsic characteristics such as values, attitudes, motivation, and personality;
Third, behavioral characteristics, including related factors such as behavioral patterns, purchasing habits, and decision-making characteristics. Understanding how these three are interrelated allows social marketers to make more accurate predictions.
6. Advanced Marketing
Marketing initially developed mainly in connection with sale of various material goods. But traditional marketing puts too much emphasis on marketing physical products while ignoring fact that other forms of things also need marketing.
In fact, services, organizations, people, concepts and places can be marketed, and marketing also covers following areas:
Marketing services. Due to growth of welfare of society, continuous increase in people's free time and onset of a post-industrial society, growth in people's demand for services is much higher than demand for material products, and various new service industries are emerging. It can be said that future era of marketing will be era of service marketing.
Organize your marketing. Organizational marketing refers to a series of activities used to create, maintain or change attitude or behavior of a target audience towards a particular organization. Both for-profit and non-profit organizations can improve their image through organizational marketing. In particular, non-profit organizations such as government, utilities, universities and foundations have always ignored marketing. Organizations need to change their concepts and learn to "market".
Marketing people. Character marketing refers to a series of activities used to create, maintain or change an audience's attitude or behavior towards a particular character, in same way that we say that everyone is a salesperson in social stage, everyone should market themselves, not just celebrities.
Conceptual marketing. Conceptual marketing here basically refers to marketing of social concepts. Such as persuading general public not to smoke, promoting various social movements such as environmental protection and energy conservation. Conceptual marketing is development, implementation and control of various programs aimed at promoting theacceptance of certain social concepts, ideas or practices by target group.
Local marketing. Place marketing refers to a set of activities used to create, maintain or change attitudes or behavior towards a particular place. For example, our scenic spots are in dire need of local marketing.
7. Global Marketing
With intensification of market competition, acceleration of global economic integration and advent of information age, competition between enterprises has transcended national boundaries and become global competition. Accordingly, marketing also downplays regional and national colors and becomes more and more a global corporate behavior, and global marketing is inevitable.
Global marketing is a mindset that treats whole world as a big market, downplays country, and looks for comparative advantage and profit margins on a global scale.
To perform well in global marketing, innovation is also needed in terms of action skills and matching talent and management in order to adapt to changing needs of marketing environment. For example, use above two basic marketing techniques to strengthen competitiveness management and improve complexity and adaptability management. More importantly, we must do a good job of intercultural integration and governance.
On one hand, to enter market with a different cultural atmosphere, you need to have an intercultural perception;
On other hand, composition of employees of some multinational companies is transnational and intercultural.
For example, IBM is very proud of fact that its senior management consists of representatives of five different nationalities. Procter & Gamble has traditionally selected managers from local business units for executive positions in overseas subsidiaries for decades, but now it realizes that this practice not only fails to take into account needs of local culture, but also does not allow for full use of international talent of managers. resources outside of United States, so in recent years they have begun a global recruitment effort. In such a context, it is very important how to organize an effective cross-cultural team and how to effectively use and integrate different cultures.
8. Integrated Marketing
In 1993, Professor D. E. Schultz from USA and others in their new book "Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)" proposed newest trend in marketing development, namely integrated marketing.
Integrated marketing is considered ticket and ticket to market in 21st century. IMC emphasizes advertising and marketing activities in essential sense of communicating with consumers and advocates a seamless combination of advertising, public relations, JV, direct sales and other tools.com promotion.
IMC integration can be done either vertically or horizontally.
Horizontal communication integration is mainly for integrating different communication tools. It is not effective to rely on one communication tool to advance alone. Instead, a variety of communication tools should be used in a judicious combination to ensure overall communication effectiveness. In terms of communication tools, IMC attaches great importance to use of modern electronic new media.
The vertical integration of BCI manifests itself at different communicative stages, using various communicative means in a complex way to produce consistent and progressively enhanced information, paying attention to priority choice of different stages to achieve set communicative goals.
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